Exploring Golang: A Comprehensive Introduction (Blog 1 of the Go Series)

Exploring Golang: A Comprehensive Introduction (Blog 1 of the Go Series)

Go, or Golang is an open-source programming language developed by Google in 2009. It has a simple syntax and is designed for easy readability, making it a great language for beginners.

Go is also known for its scalability and fast compile times, making it a great language for large-scale projects. It is used in a variety of industries, such as web development, cloud computing, and data science. Go has a thriving open-source community, with many libraries and frameworks available to make development faster and easier.

Some Awesome Go Open Source Projects are:

Kubernetes
CoreDNS
Monzo Bank
CockroachDB
Docker
Hugo

You can find the whole list of Projects here: Projects

Key GO Features

  • A compiled language (Fast compilation)

  • Less cumbersome code

  • Statically typed

  • With built-in concurrency a system that is easy for developers to work on

  • With a robust dependency management

  • With a garbage collector (Unused memory freed automatically)

Go's syntax is similar to C, with some elements borrowed from other languages like Python and C++.

Go's standard library provides a wide range of functionality, including HTTP support, encryption, compression, and other commonly used features. Additionally, there is a large ecosystem of third-party libraries and frameworks available for Go.

Some of the benefits of Go include its simplicity, speed, and scalability. The language is easy to learn, even for developers new to programming. Go's built-in concurrency support makes it easy to write concurrent and parallel code, which can improve the performance of your applications.

Some Basic Concepts

  • Concurrency: A program is concurrent when tasks can be executed out-of-order or in partial order. Concurrency in a programming language is the ability of a program to run multiple tasks simultaneously. This is achieved by splitting tasks into sub-tasks that can be executed independently, allowing them to be processed in parallel rather than sequentially.

  • Garbage collector (often called GC): When we build programs, we need to store data and fetch data from memory. Memory is not an infinite resource. GC is a process in programming where unused elements stored in memory are destroyed from time to time. Putting some data into memory is called allocation; the inverse action, which consists of removing data from memory, is called deallocation. The garbage collector’s role is to deallocate memory when it is not used anymore.

  • Statically Typed: A statically typed language is a programming language where variables are explicitly declared before the program is executed. This means that the type of data that a variable can contain is determined at compile-time, and can not change during the program's execution. This provides a level of clarity and structure to the code but also restricts the flexibility of the language in certain ways.

Go Compared to Python and C++

GoPythonC++
Statically typedDynamically typedStatically typed
Fast run timeSlow run timeFast run time
CompiledInterpretedCompiled
Fast compile timeInterpretedSlow compile time
Supports concurrency through goroutines and channelNo built-in concurrency mechanismSupports concurrency through threads
Has automatic garbage collectionHas automatic garbage collectionDoes not have automatic garbage collection
Does not support classes and objectsHas classes and objectsHas classes and objects
Does not support inheritanceSupports inheritanceSupports inheritance

Static vs Dynamic Typed Languages

Static Type LanguagesDynamic Type Languages
1. Requires the data type of a variable to be declared explicitly at the time of its declaration. The type of a variable is then checked at compile time, and any type mismatch will result in a compile-time error. This means that any errors related to type mismatches are caught before the program is run, making it easier to find and fix bugs.1. Do not require explicit declaration. Instead, the type of a variable is determined at runtime, and the same variable can hold values of different types at different times. This means that type mismatches can only be detected at runtime, and the program might produce unexpected results or errors.
2. Concise Code.2. Usually more Verbose.
3. Faster and more efficient.3. More Flexible and Expressive.
4. Examples: Java, C++, and Go.4. Examples: Python, JavaScript, and Ruby.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this first blog of our Go Series has unveiled the essence of Go, a versatile open-source language designed by Google. Its straightforward syntax, efficient compilation, and built-in concurrency offer a powerful foundation for developers. Go's scalability and vibrant ecosystem makes it a top choice for projects ranging from web development to cloud computing.

As you embark on this Go Series journey, you'll harness Go's unique features like static typing, goroutines, and automatic garbage collection to build efficient and concurrent applications. Stay tuned for upcoming blogs where we'll delve deeper into Go's capabilities, helping you master this dynamic language and expand your programming horizons. Happy coding!

Did you find this article valuable?

Support Chetan Thapliyal by becoming a sponsor. Any amount is appreciated!